Journal Publishing Volume III

VOLUME III/003/10/2011
ISSN (Online) 8480-9469

Isma Yatim : as Metaphoric's Author

Prof. Dr. Muhammad Haji Saleh

In form Hikayat Isma Yatim is a work of mixed genres, showing various elements of fiction, poetry, song, guidebook, instruction, romance and proposals for a proper Islamic Administration of a country. It is an exemplary work of popular literature that has no desire to be pure but be of vital use and commitment, and as mixed as reality and life itself. The hero, Isma Yatim, who began as a writer and rose through the ranks to become a prime minister, Isma is reminiscent of Hang Tuah, the selfless champion of his people and their values. In its structure, statements and tone we find also the core of the concept of literature and the function of the work and its author in society. All these qualities have made the hikayat a very popular work, leaving us with many manuscripts.
Keywords: metaphor, Hikayat Hang Tuah, concept of literature

Sandokan : Nusantara Warrior as Popular Story in Europe

Prof. MD. Salleh Yaapar

It is rarely known that Nusantara or the Malay world has interesting materials that could inspire literary works meant for European or western audience. Only once a while one is reminded of this, thanks to works such as Lord Jim by Joseph Conrad, or Malaisie by Henri Fauconnier, and Befehl des Radscha: Abenteuer in Malaya by Herbert Kranz. However, these works mainly present the people, lands, and seas of Nusantara as cultural and natural backgrounds to their respective stories. This essay focuses on a Nusantara warrior around whom a circle of novels have been created in Europe and meant for European audience. The warrior is Sandokan of Sabah, Borneo, and the novelist is Emilio Salgari of Italy. Salgari has never set foot on Malay lands while Sandokan is not popularly known in local history. But, the Italian writer has managed to create a stimulating story of freedom struggle, adventure, and romance around the personality of the native hero. The novel started as La Tigre della Malesia, a serial in an Italian newspaper between 1883 and 1884. In 1900 it was published in book form. Its popularity soon resulted in Salgari producing a ciclo comprising of eleven titles in all. Considered as exotic or action adventure, La Tigre della Malesia, has been translated into various European languages. It has also been adapted into film in the U.S.A. and Italy featuring movie legends such as Steve Reeves and Kabir Bedi. This essay argues that more than exotic or action adventure, the story of Sandokan involves a discourse of power. It raises questions regarding values of freedom and domination.
Keywords: Nusantara Warrior, Malay world, the story of Sandokan

Conflict Over State Forest Lands of Indonesia:
A Case of Forest Region in East Java

Prof. Dr. I Nyoman Nurjaya

Within Indonesia, Java presents an especially interesting and important arena for understanding the forest control and management and impacts of these controls on dependent-forest peo¬ple. The Government defines that around 3 million hectares of Java's State forest region are under the management of State-owned Forestry Corporation (Perum Perhu¬tani) to control and manage the forest of Java. The differences between Perum Perhutani and the dependent-forest people access and interest create tense relations and conflict over forest resources and forest lands in particular, namely conflicts between State foresters and forest villagers over forest resources. The study shows that conflicts over forest lands between the State foresters and the dependent-forest villagers is mainly caused by the differential access and perception to forest resources, the increasing need of the people over forest lands, as well as the lack of coordination between State Forest Corporation and the Regional Govern¬ment of East Java in managing forest resources in the region. Understanding pattern of conflicts between Perum Perhutani and the forest villagers requires some knowledge of historical background of forest control and management in the region. Therefore, forest-based conflict must be studied in histori¬cally specific context namely the historical background of forest control and management during both the Dutch colonial Government and Japanese Army invasions in the country in order to obtain prudently dispute settle¬ment strategy over forest resources on Java.

Paper presented at The 1st. Annual International Graduate Research Conference on Social Sciences and Humanities – Theme “Harmony and Diversity ”, organized by Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mahidol University, Thailand on April 2 – 3, 2009 at SD Avenue Hotel, Bangkok, Thailand.

Legal Pluralism
On Religious Pluralism in Indonesia:
Questioned about Christian and Muslim Tolerance,
Due to the Idea of Legal Pluralism*

Prof. Dr. Margaretha Liwoso

This paper focuses on how the Indonesian Christian and Muslim scholars respond to questions of tolerance between religions, and how they think about the problem of religious pluralism in terms of the legal pluralism. To understand the specific situation of Indonesia between Muslims and Christians, need to know about their primary position in Indonesia. In this regard, it should be known whether they tend to significantly the differentiate traditional and modern point of view in relation to the religious life. Or there are indications of substantial open-mindedness of both Muslims and Christians in the religious life? Basically, the intellectuals in Indonesia think supports the ideas of religious pluralism and tolerance among people of Indonesia. At the past, during the colonial era Indonesian Christians and Muslims who have suffered under the domination and pressure of Colonialism. At that time, they felt the same boat, and share the same fate and should help each other to gain freedom and independence together. But the ideal situation does not last long, since the 'Independence Preparatory Committee' should face the resistance - especially from within and outside Komitee. That trend has formed an ideology which sometimes interfere with inter-relationships that lasted until now.

Keywords: legal pluralism, interfaith questions, tolerance

*The article had already presented at the International Conference on “Legal Pluralism” in Kunming (China, South Yunnan Province), on 27-31 July 2009 under the coordination of IUAES (International Union of Anthropology and Ethnological Sciences)


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