Journal Publishing Volume VI

VOLUME VI/006 /04/2014

Literature
Premise of Western Eyes on Modern Malay Poems

Prof. Dr. Rainer Carle
University of Hamburg
Germany

Abstract
Malay lyric poetry is still widely unknown to us outside South-East Asia. This article is a wish to understand this literature and to make it our own. I will do this empirically and without claiming it to be representative. I am going to reflect on aesthetic experience both here and there, to and fro. I am restricting myself to one example. By this I mean comprehension of lyric poetry and its acquisition, reaching out beyond a more academic interest with the Malayologist seeing himself as a broker for the overdue exchanges leading to mutual acceptance of our cultures. The main ideas of this article are concerning xenophobia and hostility, for the sake of a peaceful co-existence.

Keywords: malay poems, xenophobia, hostility, aesthetic experience

Applied Linguistisc
Learning to Use the Shorof-Moodle and It's Interaction 
with Locus of Control Students

Dr. Aceng Rahmat
State University of Jakarta

Abstract 
The aim of this study was prove the effectiveness of the use of Moodle in Shorof learning. Because it is assumed that no media are effective for all students, this study examined the variables of locus of control students, who allegedly interacted with the use of Moodle in Shorof learning. Shorof is a science that studies changes of the bases of Arabic words into various formations with different meanings. The level of complexity could be analyzed with adequate clarity, while the accuracy and persistence could be compared between studies using Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the form of an Internet-based Learning Management System (LMS). One of the most popular LMS is the Modular Objective Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment (Moodle). On the whole, the class using Moodle obtained better learning outcomes compared with the class not using Moodle. However, after considering confounding variables, such as locus of control, the final result was that the group of students with an external locus of control obtained worse learning outcomes than the class not using Moodle.
Keywords: shorofmoodle, Arabic morphology, locus of control

I. Introduction
Teaching Shorof (Arabic morphology) to students by the Arabic Language and Literature Faculty of the Faculty of Language and Art consists of the mashdar of the Arabic word and the mass musytaq (word formation), which consists of the mass of files (performer), the mass maf'ul (the subject of employment), shigah mubalagah (meaning containing shape/maha), nature musyabbahat (adjective), the mass tafdhil (of comparison), plural assessable (plural with singular changes), the mass of the ages (the mean time), the mass of eating (indicating the place), the mass tools (word count tool), ibdal-i'lal (changes in letters), and the ratio (adjective formation from noun).
Teaching Shorof has been undertaken in the conventional manner, through the explanation by lecturers of the concepts with the teaching material contained in books, which consists of the material and exercises, but these materials are still not sufficient for learning. Teaching is limited by space and time, with only two credits allocated and with face-to-face meetings occurring for 100 minutes per week. The students lack the time to understand the complex concepts necessary mastery, so to enable students to understand better the concepts contained in the syllabus, we utilize Moodle (Modular Objective Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment) in Shorof online learning, with which the material contained in the syllabus can be enriched with descriptions, Power Point slides, quizzes, and links to various relevant supporting materials for learning shorof. Students have the opportunity to access the learning materials in the classroom, on campus in their spare time, or even when they are at home.

Internet-assisted learning requires a significant desire to learn and to attain high achievement that requires the student's own self-motivation for achievement. Thus, the locus of control of students plays a role in the success of Internet-assisted learning. The questions of this research can be formulated as follows: (1) Are there differences in learning outcomes between Shorof students who are taught using Moodle and students who are taught without utilizing Moodle? (2) Is there an interaction effect of the use of Moodle and the locus of control of students on the learning outcomes of Shorof? (3) Are there differences in shorof learning outcomes among students with an internal locus of control between those taught with Moodle and those taught without Moodle?, and (4) Are there differences in shorof learning outcomes among the group of students with an external locus of control between those taught with Moodle and those taught without Moodle?
Theoretically, this study has uses for the development of learning science instructional media development, particularly for Shorof, with the help of information and communication technology (ICT), to provide onlineeasier learning concepts of morphology. Practically, this study should enrich the usefulness of teaching materials for faculty and students of the Department of Arabic Language and Literature, Faculty of Languages and Arts, State University Jakarta.


II. Science Shorof (Arabic Morphology)
Rahmat (2011) states:
الصرف اصطلاحاً: هو تحويل الأصل الواحد إلى أمثلة مختلفة لمعان مقصودة ، لا تحصل تلك المعاني إلا بهذا التغيير
Shorof is also called tashrif, and it changes into a variety of word formations that have different meanings from the original meaning. Shorof is also called the science of morphology. Morphology is the study of grammar structure or the forms of words, primarily through the use of morphemes. Morphology is generally divided into two areas: the study of inflection (inflectional morphology), and the study of the formation of words (lexical or derivational morphology). The study of a morpheme is a kind of historical study. Morphology consists of a variety of forms. One approach is to study morphemes and the variants of morphemes that appear in words (morfotaktis sequence analysis). Such a model examines the relationships between words as a derivation process. In generative linguistics, morphology and syntax are not seen as two separate levels: the rules of grammar apply to the structure of words, as a case of phrases and sentences, and morphological concepts only emerge as points at which the output of the syntactic component should be given phonological representation through rules of morphophonology.
Morphology discusses the internal structure of form of the word. In morphology, the analysis divides the formative word form into its components, attempting to explain all formations. Morphology can be divided into two main types, namely morphological inflectional and morphological word formation, also called lexical formation. Inflectional morphology discusses new lexemes creating by compounding words (composition). Derivation addresses the formation of new lexemes from two or more potential systems. Derivation is sometimes also divided into derivations that maintain class (class-maintaining derivation) and the derivations that change classes (class-changing derivation).
Morphology examines the parts of the word and their processes. Morphology is a component of transformational generative grammar (TTG), which discusses the internal structure of words. The general theory of morphology addresses the precise division of the kinds of morphological rules that can be found in natural languages. Special morphology refers to rules that have a double function. First, these rules address the formation of new words. Second, these rules represent the knowledge of native speakers, who are not aware of the internal structure of existing words in the language.
Morphology is the part of the science of language that discusses the shape of the word and the effects of changes on the classes of the form of the word and on word meanings. Morphology is divided into two types: (1) synchronic morphology; and (2) diachronic morphology. Synchronic morphology examines synchronic morphemes within a certain time coverage, both past and present. Diachronic morphology examines the history or origin of the word and considers why, for example, the use of a word differs from its use in the past. The morphological process, according to Ramlan, is the process of forming words from other units that constitute its basic form.
Morphology in Arabic is called al-Sharf science, i.e., the science of learning the intricacies of the Arabic form of the word. Al-Ghalayaini (1978: 8) defined al-Sharf science as a science that examines the roots of the word to determine the forms of Arabic words for everything outside i'rab ihwal and community development. In Hassan's (1979: 82) study of different sharafs, he examined sharaf terms sharfy nizam and identified three groups of study: (a) the study of meaning, (b) the study of form, and (c) the study of the relationship between the two.

III. Moodle
Moodle is one of the fastest growing free, open-source VLEs (Virtual Learning Environment) currently available. It is also commonly referred to as an LMS (Learning Management System) or a CMS (Course Management System). Open source means that the code is available by licensing agreement and that the end user can customize it and redistribute it (http://opensource.org). These factors have enabled the development of open-source software for a wide range of applications for free or at a low cost. A VLE is a way of providing a teaching and learning environment online (Stanford, 2009: 24).
Moodle is designed to support a style of learning called Social Constructionist Pedagogy. This style of learning is interactive. The social constructionist philosophy teaches that people learn best when they interact with the learning material, construct new material for others, and interact with other students about the material. The difference between a traditional class and the social constructionist philosophy is the difference between a lecture and a discussion. Moodle does not require instructors to use the social constructionist method for their courses. However, it best supports this method. For example, Moodle enables instructors to add five kinds of static course material. This material is course material that students read but with which they do not interact:
• A text page;
• A Web page;
• A link to anything on the Web (including material on the Moodle site);
• A view into one of the course's directories; and
• A label that displays any text or image.
However, Moodle also enables instructors to add six types of interactive course material. These materials are course material with which students interact by answering questions, entering text, or uploading files:
• Assignment (uploading files to be reviewed by the teacher and/or students);
• Choice (a single question);
• Journal (an online journal);
• Lesson (a conditional, branching activity);
• Quiz (an online test); and
• Survey (with results available to the teacher and/or students) (Rice, 2006: 9).

IV. Locus of Control
Locus of Control is a multi-dimensional concept that describes the behavior of control (Erwee, 1986). This concept is related to the expected results of an act (Rotter, 1966; Lefcourt, 1976) and not to the act itself. According to Bothma and Schepers (1997), the locus of control, in particular, showed confidence about the relationship between the control of resources and the cause of action. The concept of internal and external locuses of control appeared in a theoretical study by Rotter (1966). Rotter wrote that people are on a continuum of dependence on themselves or on the things that are outside of themselves, which determine the events that happen to them.
Locus of Control (LOC) has, at one end, the internal locus of control, with the external locus of control at the other end of the continuum. People with an internal LOC are generally believed to produce results due to their efforts and choices. They believe that the result is a consequence of their efforts, abilities, and initiatives (Burger, 1992) They are responsible for their actions and for the control they have over their own outcomes (De Charms, 1968), while people with an external LOC believe that they are not able to influence the results. These results stand alone, and all results are determined the elements of chance, social situations, fate, or the influence of others (O'Brien, 1996; Burger, 1992). In short, people with an internal LOC are more confident that their internal behavior is most decisive in obtaining everything that they want and in avoiding any unintended consequences (Leone & Burns, 2000).
Locus of Control is a determinant of attitudes toward the nature of the occurrence of internal or external influences on the person (O'Brien,1986, p. 52). O'Brien explained that there are two polar extremes. One of these extremes believes that external determinants are the results of other people, social situations, luck, or fate. They believe that the factors outside themselves are important and determine the events that they experience (Stone & Jackson, 1975). At the other pole are those with internal LOC, who believe that the decisive factors in the events that they experience are primarily determined by their personal effort, ability, and initiatives. These people believe that they have control over the events that occur in their lives (Stone & Jackson, 1975). Internal and external LOCs differ in their relationship with cognitive activity and environmental control. People with an internal LOC seem to have control over their lives because they have a better understanding of their conditions. They are prepared to acquire and exploit information to suit their purposes, although such practices sometimes seem inappropriate (Dollinger, 2000).
Biggs (1985) and Rose, Hall, Bolen and Webster (1996) presented the results of research that showed a relationship between the ability to think critically and one’s LOC. These studies showed that learners who do not have the ability to think critically, who have less intrinsic motivation or who do not have a sense of curiosity tend to have an external LOC. In contrast, learners who have a legitimate "deep approach to learning" (e.g., those with intrinsic motivation and a sense of curiosity, which often reflects what they have learned) are likely to have an internal LOC (Rose et al, 1996). Ishiyama, McClure, Hart and Amico (1999) reported that learners with an internal LOC enjoy learning environments to maximize their levels of controls over learning, and online learning can provide these factors. Various instruments have been developed to measure locus of control (Le Roux, Schmidt & Schepers, 1997). Rotter (1966) developed a questionnaire regarding locus of control called "The Internal - External (IE) Scale." Although several other instruments have been successfully developed, the Rotter IE Scale is the most commonly used instrument (Scheper, 1994).
 

V. Results of the Research
The following data will be described in six parts: (1) data on the learning outcomes of Shorof students using the Moodle learning experience; (2) data on the learning outcomes of Shorof students without using the Moodle; (3) data on shorof students’ learning outcomes using Moodle in students with an internal locus of control; (4) data on shorof students’ learning outcomes without using Moodle students in students with an internal locus of control; (5) data on the learning outcomes of Shorof students using Moodle students in students with an external locus of control; and (6) data on shorof students; learning outcomes without using Moodle in students with an external locus of control.


1). We obtained data on the learning results of the group of Shorof students who used Moodle. As a group, the students who used Moodle are described in Table 1 below.
Table 1. Frequency distribution of learning results data for the group of Shorof
Students using Moodle.
No.    Interval Class    Absolute Frequency    
Relative Frequency
                                                   (fi)                             (%)
1            19 – 22                          1                              3.85
2            23 – 26                          3                            11.54
3            27 – 30                          8                            30.77
4            31 – 34                          9                            34.62
5            35 – 38                          3                            11.54
6            39 – 42                          2                              7.69
Total                                          26                              100


Table 1 shows that the score spreads for all of the class intervals tended to form a peak, and after performing calculations for the values of the centralization of the data, we found that the average value (mean) = 30.96, the mode (mo) = 31.07, and the median (me) = 30.94. These numbers, which showed a relatively small difference among the mean, mode, and median of the data, tended to be normal.


2). We obtained data on Shorof learning results in students who did not use Moodle. As a group, the learning outcomes of these students are shown in Table 2 below.
Table 2. Frequency distribution of learning results data for the group of Shorof
Students not using Moodle.

No.    Interval Class    Absolute Frequency    Relative Frequency
                                                   (fi)                            (%)

1            19 – 22                         4                             15.38
2            23 – 26                         4                             15.38
3            27 – 30                         7                             26.92
4            31 – 34                         8                             30.77
5            35 – 38                         2                               7.69
6            39 – 42                         1                               3.85
Total                                         26                                100

 

Table 2 shows that the scores were distributed across all of the class intervals and tended to indicated, after performing calculations, the values of centralization of the data, with the average value (mean) = 28.96, the mode (mo) = 31.07, and the median (me) = 29.50. On examining these numbers, which had relatively small differences among the mean, mode, and median, the data tended to be normal.
 

3). We obtained data on the learning results of Shorof students using Moodle in students with an internal locus of control. As a group, the data from these students are shown in Table 3 below.
Table 3. Frequency distribution of learning results data for the group of Shorof students using Moodle with an internal locus of control.
 
No.    Interval Class    Absolute Frequency     Relative Frequency
                                                   (fi)                              (%)

1           28 – 30                          1                                7.69
2           31 – 33                          2                              15.38
3           34 – 36                          5                              38.46
4           37 – 39                          3                              23.08
5           40 – 42                          2                              15.38

Total                                         13                                 100

Table 3 shows that the scores were distributed across all of the class intervals and tended to reach a peak, and after performing calculations of the values of centralization of the data, the value of the average (mean) = 35.69, the mode (mo) = 35.30, and the median (me) = 35.60. On examining these numbers, these data tended to appear normal.


4). We obtained data on the learning results of Shorof students not using Moodle in students with an internal locus of control. As a group, the data from these students appear in Table 4 below.
Table 4. Frequency distribution of learning results data for the group of Shorof students not using Moodle with an internal locus of control.
 
No.    Interval Class    Absolute Frequency    Relative Frequency
                                                   (fi)                             (%)

1            19 – 21                         1                                7.69
2            22 – 24                         2                              15.38
3            25 – 27                         5                              38.46
4            26 – 30                         3                              23.08
5            31 – 33                         2                              15.38
Total                                         13                                 100


Table 4 above shows that the scores for all classes were distributed across all intervals and tended to form a peak, and after calculating the  values of the centralization of the data, the value of the average (mean) = 26.69, the mode (mo) = 26.30, and the median (me) = 26.60. These data tended to be normal.


5). We obtained data on the learning results of Shorof students using Moodle in students with an external locus of control. The learning outcomes data of this group are shown in Table 5 below.
Table 5. Frequency distribution of learning results data for the group of Shorof students using Moodle with an external locus of control.

No.    Interval Class    Absolute Frequency   Relative Frequency
                                                   (fi)                           (%)

1           19 – 21                           1                            7.69
2           22 – 24                           3                          23.08
3           25 – 27                           5                          38.46
4           26 – 30                           3                          23.08
5           31 – 33                           1                            7.69
Total                                          13                             100


The table above shows that the scores were distributed across all of the class intervals and tended to form a peak, and after performing calculations of the values of centralization of the data, we found the value of the average (mean) = 26.00, the mode (mo) = 26.00, and the median (me) = 20.60. These data tended to be normal.


6). We obtained data on the learning results of Shorof students not using Moodle in students with an external locus of control. In data from this group are shown in Table 6 below.
Table 6. Frequency distribution of learning results data for the group of Shorof students not using Moodle with an external locus of control
.
No.    Interval Class    Absolute Frequency   Relative Frequency
                                                   (fi)                           (%)

1           28 – 30                          3                              23.08
2           31 – 33                          3                              23.08
3           34 – 36                          4                              30.77
4           37 – 39                          2                              15.38
5           40 – 42                          1                                7.69
Total                                         13                                 100


The table above shows that the scores were distributed across all class intervals and tended to form a peak, and after performing calculations of the values of centralization of the data, we found that the value of the average (mean) = 33.85, the mode (mo) = 34.50, and the median (me) = 33.88. These data tended to be normal.


VI. Hypothesis Testing
The results of hypothesis testing of the design of the study showed the following results of the calculations.
 

Table 7. Calculation of 2-way ANOVA
Variance
Sources                JK              Dk          RJK          F count              F table
                                                                                                  α = 0,05    α = 0,05
Between A        73.9231            1        79.9231       5.0248         4.04          7.19
Between B          0.6923            1          0.6923       0.0471         4.04          7.19
A X B              800.3077            1      800.3077       54.400         4.04          7.19
                        706.1538          48        14.7115           
Total              1581.0769          51        89.6346   
      

Description:
A    = Use of Moodle
B    = Locus of Control
AB = Use of Moodle Interaction and Locus of Control
D    = In Group
JK = Sum of Squares
Df = Degrees of Freedom
RJK = Average Number of Squares
* = Significant
** = Very Significant


1). We performed hypothesis testing of the difference in learning outcomes of Shorof student groups taught using Moodle and the group of students who did not use Moodle.
 The first hypothesis used two-way ANOVA. The hypothesis tested was H0: μ = μ A2 A1 and H1: μ A1 > A2 μ. The results showed that the F value = 5.0248 > F = 4.04 at α = 0.05, so the null hypothesis was rejected. Thus, the hypothesis that “there is no difference in learning outcomes between Shorof student groups taught using Moodle and student groups taught without using Moodle" was rejected. The average Shorof learning outcome in students taught using Moodle was 30.96, while the average learning outcome in students taught without using Moodle was 28.96. The learning outcomes of the student groups taught using Moodle were higher than those of the groups taught without using Moodle.
2). We performed hypothesis testing of the interaction effects of the use of Moodle and the locus of control on the learning results of Shorof Sciences.
The second hypothesis was the statistical hypothesis H0: INT AXB = 0; and H1: INT AXB ≠ 0. The results showed that the F value = 54.400> F = 7.19 at α = 0.01, so the null hypothesis was rejected. Thus, the hypothesis "there is no interactive effects of the use of Moodle and locus of control on the learning results of Shorof Science" was rejected.
3). We performed hypothesis testing of the differences between the learning results of the Shorof student group with an internal locus of control taught using Moodle and those of the group of students taught without using Moodle.
The results of hypothesis testing resulted in the resumption of the second, third, and fourth hypothesis tests. The results of the third and fourth hypothesis tests are shown in Table 4.10.

Table 8. Summary of results of the calculation of Tukey's test,
No            Group            Qcount              Ftable
                                                      α = 0.01    α = 0,05
1    YA1B1 and YA2B1    9.62         4.26          3.06
2    YA1B2 and YA2B2    5.13         4.26          3.06


The third hypothesis was statistical hypothesis H0: μ = μ A2B1 A1B1; and H1: μ A1B1> μ A2B. The test results showed Qcount = 9.62 > = 4.26 Qtable on α = 0.01, so the null hypothesis was rejected, and hypothesis stating "there is no difference between the learning results of the student group with an internal locus of control were taught using Moodle and those of the group of students who were taught without using Moodle” is rejected. The average learning outcome of the student group with an internal locus of control that was taught using Moodle was 35.69, while the average group learning outcome of students who were taught without Moodle was 26.69. Among students with an internal locus of control, the group of students who did not use Moodle performed better than the group that did not use the Moodle learning experience.
4). We performed hypothesis testing of the differences in learning outcomes of Shorof student groups with an external locus of control who were taught using Moodle and the outcomes of the group of students who did not use Moodle.
Fourth hypothesis H0: μ = μ a2b2 A1B2; and H1: μ A1B2 < μ a2b2. The test results showed that Qcount = 5.13 > = 4.26 Qtable on α = 0.01, so the null hypothesis was rejected. Thus, the hypothesis that “There is no difference in Shorof learning outcomes between students with an external locus of control who are taught using Moodle and those who are taught without the use of Moodle” is rejected. The average Shorof learning outcome in student groups with an external locus of control taught using Moodle was 26.00, while the average Shorof learning outcome in student with an external locus of control taught without using Moodle was 33.85. The Shorof learning outcomes in the student groups with an external locus of control who were taught using Moodle were lower than those of the group of students with an external locus of control who were taught without using Moodle.


VII. Conclusion
The utilization of Moodle as a learning medium for Shorof Sciences proved effective for students with internal locus of control, and not using Moodle proved effective for students with an external locus of control. Lecturers need to apply a variety of teaching methods for the Science of Shorof so learning outcomes can be maximized for all students.

Selected References
Al-Ghalayaini, Musthafa, Syekh. جامع الدروس العربيةJami’u al-Durus al-‘Arabiyyah, (Beirut: Masyurat al-Maktabah al-‘Ashriyyah), 1978
Badudu, J.S. 1983. Membina Bahasa Indonesia Baku. Bandung: Pustaka Prima
Biggs, J.B. 1985. The roles of metalearning in study processes. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 55, 185-212
Bothma, A.C. & Schepers, J.M. 1997. The role of locus of control and achievement motivation in the work performanca of black managers. Journal of Industrial Psychology, 23 (3) 44-52
Burger, J.M. 1992. Desire for control. Personality, social, and clinical perspetives. New York: Plenum Press.
De Charms, R. 1968. Personal causation. New York: Academic Press.
Dollinger, S.J. 2000. Locus of control and incidental learning: An application to college student sucess. College Student Journal, 34 (4), 537.
Erwee, R. 1986. Achievement motivation and locus of control of black university students, Journal of Idustrial Psychology, 12 (2), 1-9, Rand Afrikaans University.
Hassan Tamam. اللغة العربية ، معناها ومبناهاAl-Lughah al-‘Arabiyyah, Ma’naha wa Mabnaha, (Mesir), 1979
http://www.moodle.org/
Ishiyama, J. T.; McClure, M.; Hart, H. & Amico, J. 1999. Critical thinking disposition and locus of control as predictors of evaluation of teaching strategies. College Student Journal, 33 (2), 269.
Le Roux, C.A., Schmidt, C. & Schepers, J.M. 1997. Achievement motivation, locus of control and individuality as predictors of participative management in the South African educational environment. Journal of Industrial Psychology, 23 (3), 1-8.
Lau, V. P. & Shaffer, M.A. 1999. Career success: The effects of personality. Career Development International, 4 (4), 225-231.
Leone, C, & Burns, J. 2000. The measurement of locus of control: Assessing more than meets the eye? Journal of Psychology, 134 (1), 63.
Lefcourt, H.M. 1976. Locus of control: Current trends in theory and research. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publisher.
M.Ramlan. (1987). “Morfologi, Suatu Tinjauan Deskriptif”. Yogyakarta: CV Karyono
O’Brien, G.E. 1986. Psychology of work and unemployment. New York: Wiley.
Rahmat, Aceng. 2011. علم الصرفlmu Sharaf: Arabic Morfology. Jakarta: Beringin Mulia
Rice IV, William H. 2006. Moodle E-Learning Course Development: A complete guide to successful learning using Moodle. Birmingham – Mumbai: Packt Publishing
Rose, R.J. Hall.C.W., Bolen, L.M. & Webster, R.E. 1996. Locus of control and college students’ approaches to learning. Psychological Reports, 79, 163-171.
Rotter, J.B. 1966. Generalized expectancies for internal versus exernal control of reinforcement, Psychogical Monographs: General and Applied. 80 (1), 1-27
Schepers, J.M. 1994. Die Lokus van Beheer-vrelys: Kontruksie en evaluaring van ‘n nuwe meetininstrument. Unpublishes report. Rand Afrikaans University, Johannesburg.
Stanford, Jeff. 2009. Moodle 1.9 for Second Language Teaching, Birmingham – Mumbai: Packt Publishing.
Stone, G. & Jackson, T. 1975. Internal-external control as a determinat of effectiveness of modelling and instruction. Journl of Counseling Psychology, 22, 294-298

Social Science
The Need for Quality Healthcare and Appropriate Services in Indonesia Hospital

Dr. Marthen Kimbal
Faculty of Social and Politics
Sam Ratulangi University

Abstract 
Medical care services are expected to be high quality. High quality services can reduce illness and mortality rates and can also create healthier communities. To maintain and promote health, to prevent and treat illnesses and to heal individuals, groups and societies, medical care relies on personal efforts and organizational teamwork. Healthcare delivery must satisfy the customer who uses the service and meet the community’s expectations while following standard medical procedures and codes of professional ethics.
Keywords: healthcare, healthy, worker, patient service

Applied Linguistics
Morphological Review of Lands' Name in Minahasan Culture

Dr. Olga Singkoh
English Department, Faculty of Language and Arts,
Manado State University

Abstract
The research aims to identify the linguistic forms of land’s name in Minahasan culture. The research was conducted from January 2011 to March 2012 in Minahasa Regency. There were 12 informants from several villages in Minahasa Regency. The snowball sampling method was used to determine the number of informants. The triangulated technique in the forms of observation, interview, and documentation was used to collect data. The linguistic analysis of Kridalaksana (2007) was used to analyse the data.From this research, it can be concluded that the linguistic forms of land’s name in Minahasan culture consist of word and phrase; (1) base, (2) affixed words that underwent the prefixation, suffixation, infixation, and confixation process, (3) reduplication, (4) phrase, (5) meaning.

Keywords: land’s name, Minahasan culture, linguistic forms

Linguistics
Cultural Expression in Verbal Language
of Minahasan Tontemboan Folklore
Santje Iroth
Faculty of Language and Arts,
Manado State University

Abstract
The objective of this research is to identify and categorize the verbal expressions and culture values of MinahasanTontemboan folklore, to analyze and to explain the meaning of the verbal expressions culture values of MinahasanTontemboan folklore. Research method used is the qualitative method and Semiotic Structural Approach, study to explain the literature as the sign system. Data analysis used the procedures of Heda Jason, Riffaterre in Suwardi (2008) following the steps of reading (1), heuristic and (2) hermeneutic. Research result finds the expression which can be the human’s life manual nowadays for it is still relevant.

Keywords: folklore, expression, culture, Tontemboan folklore, verbal expresion

Applied Linguistics
Discourse Analysis On Minahasan Health Attitudess

Prof. Dr. Margaretha Liwoso
Sam Ratulangi University
Manado, Indonesia

Abstract
The development of medicine sciences has created technical and medical treatment innovation. However, the Minahasan community imbedded to the psycho and cultural problems of: medical human resources (legally); social, economic, and educational aspects. The use of discourse analysis in this research tries to explore the ideology of the Minahasan community through talk, text, advertising and their ideas. How the Minahasan community moves to the alternative treatment based on discourse effect of linguistics, to be the aimed of this article. In fact, as an alternative to the public view, one tends to prefer the traditional ingredients or concortion e.g. of remedies which are considered to be more effective, and not costly.

Keywords: medical discourse, health attitude, the power of language

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