Journal Publishing Volume X


VOLUME X/010/05/2016
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Taboo Expressions during Pregnancy in the
Toulour Community, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

Diane Mathilde Tengker

Abstract
 
The uniqueness of a group can be seen in the way how they use language. Language is a sign system agreed to be used by members of certain groups of people to collaborate, communicate, and identify them. In detail, languages consist of a phonological system, a syntactic system, a semantic system and a pragmatic system. In fact each system is distinct, but all of them are equally important. This study just concentrates on the pragmatic system without ignoring the other systems. In regard to taboo expressions, as utterance, it is unique as typical form, varied, and is able to identify a way of life of the particular social group. The aim of this study is to investigate the prohibitions of the pregnant women between the first months of gestation until birth. This study uses a qualitative method, concretely an ethno-linguistics approach with procedures to produce descriptive data, in accordance with the research techniques. The results show that the prohibition expressions are used in the context of maternal health which based on cultural behavior in accordance with the customs passed down from generation to generation. The implication of this study to describe the traditional way of life of the pregnancy women compare to the modern behavior.
Keywords: taboo expression, prohibition phrases, cultural behavior
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Small Talk as a Form of Politeness in the Manado Malay Language

Meity C. Muntuuntu

Abstract
 
Small talk is a form of socio-lingual manners of the customary language which is relatively standardized, but informal. It includes the manners in Manado Malay, and all at once the realization of their custom conversation interaction in the society. This kind of speech includes in greetings, compliments, jokes, invitations, appointments, requests, hope, and gratitude. Small talk can serve to open a conversation or interaction, maintain communication, break a silence, establish and maintain social relationships.The discussion in this article will focus on the concept, the form and the function of small talk. This study used a descriptive qualitative method to analyze the conversation interaction in Manado Malay community. The result of this study points out that the used of small talk in Manado Malay is important for the community as a medium of communication in everyday life. Furthermore, the implication of this study, go towards the non-native speaker to understand how to behave in the Manado Malay society in conversation interaction.
Keywords: small talk, politeness, and Manado Malay
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Improving The Student's English Vocabularies Undestanding Trough The Contextual Learning Teaching Approach

Dr. Herlina, M.Pd

Abstract
 
The purpose of this research is to increase the English vocabularies understanding of the four grade students in elementary school using contetextual learning teaching approach. This research used classroom action research carried out in two cycles with acting, implementing, observing and countinued with reflecting to the plan for the next cycles. The research was collaboration research to the lecturer and the class teacher. The subjects of this research, students of the four grade of elementary school in Labschool Setiabudi South Jakarta. The data was collected using the vocabulary understanding test instrument, non test instrumens that demonstrare the learning active creative efective enjoyable approach. Focus of this research is learning English at elementary schools to increase the students’ speaking skill and their vocabuaries understanding in an easy effective and enjoiable learning activity where students are actively involved in the learning and teaching process. The result of the research, the data of the vocabulary test instruments showed that a significant increase from the first cycle to the second cycle. First cycle, the percentage of the students who got the score of the vocabulary undestanding test only 62,16%, but had increase significantly in the second cycle to 95%, that means there was a significant increase in the vocabulary understanding obtained by the students. The data from the non–test insruments, the implementation of the Learning Active Creative Efective Enjoyable approach in the process of teaching and learning had also increased from the first cycle to the second cycles. It can be concluded that the implementation of the Learning Active Creative Efective Enjoyable approach in the process of teaching and learning of the English subject could increase the Englsh vocabulary understanding of the four grades of elementary school students. 
Keywords: improving vocabulary, contextual learning teaching approach, action research
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The Online Shopping Behavior of Manado Women

Dr. Lisbeth Mananeke, MM

Abstract
 
Technological development, especially of online media, is so rapid that it has encouraged businesses to use online tools as a venue for the production of effective marketing. Housewives in Manado who act as managers of family finances are an easy target for online products. The research problem is divided into two aspects, namely the characteristics of the online shopping behavior of Manado women and the advantages and disadvantages of online shopping. This study uses a qualitative method with 30 women workers. The results showed: 54% through online shopping sites, 23% through social media TV advertising, 14% from friends, 7% through the internet, and 2% through magazines, and newspapers. The advantages of shopping online were as follows: 43% said that online shopping prices are cheaper than the prices in shops in Manado; 40% said that online shopping has more choice; 11% said that online shopping is more practical and the rest declared online shopping more efficient, whereas 10% said that what is sent is not in accordance with the order. 
Keywords: online shopping, housewives behavior, Manado women

I. Background
In the current era of globalization, the development of science and technology will progress and lead to an increasingly rapid pace of life. Globalization itself is an era in which the development of all elements in life change and progress in the world of information and technology, and communications. Failing to catch up with this development makes people "technology illiterates". This is why people are competing to innovate following the development of the existing globalization. One important component is the use of smart phones and the Internet is increasingly in demand. The internet is a communication system that is capable of connecting computer networks around the world. The internet also provides a variety of facilities that enable the user to access a variety of information. In other words, the internet provides convenience in exchange for information (Ramadhan, 2005).
Consumers are required to be smart, thorough, efficient and effective in selecting their desired product. In daily life consumers are faced with a variety of needs that are not restricted, and online shopping is often an alternative to meet the needs of consumers. Various items can be obtained online, including clothes, shoes, bags, accessories, cosmetics, and so forth. Shopping online can save time and effort. It also offers a bigger variety of products. Today many stores have started selling their products online. However, when shopping for goods offered, should have a standard and precise time according to what is desired. The competition increases seriously that the product makes consumers must more critical and careful to use a product.
Manado is a busy city with a highly advanced business development. Since the time when the Dutch occupied Indonesia, most Minahasa people have been influenced by Western culture. Education and culture brought by the Dutch have had a great impact on the local lifestyle including on the style of dressing. That is why until today Minahasa residents’ dress style seems neat both for everyday and for formal events. This is why the shopping behavior of Manado people has always been standardized, both in fulfilling the needs of primary, secondary, or tertiary. It contributed to the proliferation of various trade efforts in meeting the needs of lifestyle, both online and offline.


1.2 Theoretical Framework

The rapid development of Manado has an impact on the public spending behavior. Moreover, the location of Manado at the edge of the Pacific Ocean leads to development of the growing city. This can be seen in the number of infrastructure development projects, increasing number of five-star hotels, even fixes tourist attractions, and so forth. Not surprisingly, since 2011 Manado has been one of ten cities in Indonesia that are a destination of MICE (Meeting, Incentive, Convention, and Exhibition). These circumstances are important for increasing trade in the city. The number of shops and outlets is increasing, offering a wide variety of products and services to cover community needs. These businesses are also required to further innovate and adapt to the development of existing technologies, with the aim to market their products and services. Moreover, every year population of Manado continues to grow and this is certainly the target of a separate market for the campaigner’s effort. The table below shows the development of the population of Manado that on December 30, 2015 reached 522,022.


Years
2013
2012
2011
 Men Number
210,700
209,474
206,292
Women Number
208,890
208,309
204,189
Total
419,990
419,483
410.,48
Table 1 Population of Manado People by sex

Referring to the Table 1, it appears that the population of women in the city of Manado gives an idea of its own target market for businesses. Consumptive lifestyles make women become an easy target for entrepreneurs in marketing their business. The opportunities for online shopping for women have increased, although they are confronted with various risks.
Research shows that 80% of social media users are women. Be it Face book, Instagram, Twitter, Path, or Google, and so forth, the average largest user group are women. Therefore, it is no surprise that the pattern of marketing products and services has shifted from displaying products in stores to an online system through social media. Therefore, women have become the primary target of marketing products and services. In addition, the women who consumptive life styles increasingly support the sales process online. Women in Manado are no exception. The demands of work, lifestyle, daily activities and culture become the main backdrop to the growing online shopping behavior of women in Manado.


1.3 The Formulation of the Problem
The focus of this study is the online shopping behavior of Manado women, concretely:
1. What are the characteristics of the online shopping behavior of Manado women?
2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of shopping online?

1.4 Research Methodology
Questionnaires were distributed to and interviews were held with women in Manado.
Variable operational research studies and references, variables study is based on:
a) Convenience because one does not need to go to a store.
b) Completeness of information on the vendor's site.
c) When consumers can search for all day (24 hours).
d) Consumer confidence, consumer disappointment, to evaluate the next product purchase
Consumers can visit websites or even blog accounts on social media that offer various goods and services. Online shopping activity is a new form of communication that does not need direct face-to-face contact, but can be done through a notebook, a computer, or a mobile phone connected to the Internet.
Shopping online, also known as e-commerce is one form of electronic commerce that is used for transactions between sellers or between a seller and a consumer. According to Laudon and Laudon (1998), e-commerce is a process of buying and selling products with a computer as an intermediary for business transactions. Its presence on the Internet can be identified by the presence of facilities for advertising, sales, and service support to its customers through its online store with daily operation for 24 hours. Business exchange is routinely performed by using electronic data interchange (EDI), e-mail, electronic bulletin boards, fax machines, and electronic funds transfer with regard to transactions of shopping on the internet, stock online, and obligation letter, downloads and sales of software, documents , graphics, music, textiles, and others, as well as transaction business to business (B2B).


II Development of Online Shopping in Indonesia
Online shopping in Indonesia is increasing. Formerly, the Internet could only be accessed by the people of the Development State, but now the Internet is accessible throughout the world, including in Indonesia. The public flocked to virtual shops on the Internet. Shopping online is not restricted to goods, but also includes services such as banking services. Through e-banking customers can perform activities such as money transfer, payment of bills and so forth


2.1 How to shop online
Online shopping can be done by window shopping online.. After choosing the desired item the buyer proceeds to the choice of the manner of payment and then after the nominal money transfer, the seller will send the goods through a courier service.
Today the procedure of online shopping can be done more easily. When buyers are  interested in goods, they can make phone calls or send a text message to the  seller according to the rules, or communicate via e-mail or through the social media account of the seller. Once the message is received, the buyers are usually required to transfer some money to the seller's account and the purchased goods will be sent either by courier (if the delivery area is close enough) or through the postal service.
Payment can be made either by using a debit card, credit card, pay pal, cut customer credit (for transactions via the phone), check, or COD (cash on delivery). Sellers can show their goods, so that interested buyers can examine them before the purchase. Such purchases usually make payments directly in cash. In addition to face-to-face contacts between the seller and the buyer, COD can be done between the courier and the buyer; the seller usually will only serve COD if local buyers can still be reached by the seller.


2.2 The Advantages of Online Shopping
1. Buyers do not need to visit shops, boutiques, malls and so forth. Buyers simply go online and purchase the desired item.
2. The purchase process can be done anywhere as long as consumers have access to the Internet. The selection of items can be done from home or work, so the purchase can be done without having to leave home. Therefore, the process can save energy. Practicality side selling method used to make the buyer can work the other condiment shop online.
3. Sellers can avoid the costs of opening a store because through online shopping they can market their products via the Internet.
4. Marketing of the product can reach the whole world at very low cost.


2.3 The Disadvantages of the Online Shopping
1. The existence of a time lag between the payment and the delivery of products.
2. The quality of the desired goods is sometimes at odds with the quality listed on the website.
3. The shipping cost is high and often the cost of the product. Sellers usually specify that the shipping costs are very high, which adds to the total expenditure. If the products are shipped from other countries, the buyer must pay additional taxes as well.
4. Scams are possible in which buyers send money, but goods are not shipped.
5. Vulnerable damaged or broken due to media delivery is heading.
6. Vulnerable piercing action account because the payment is done via the internet.
7. Spam after buyer registration as sellers tend to send their online catalog via e-mail to buyers and it is quite disturbing for the privacy of each buyer and seller.


III Discussion
Cultural development and improvement of education provide clear standard requirements for Manado women to support their daily activities. The mindset that should appear neatly left by parent’s bygone era makes women Manado highly selective in looking. This is why the shopping behavior of Manado women is quite high. If some people are more likely to choose the goods at the lowest price, is now a priority choice preferred by the quality of the cheap price bid.
The variety of proven strategies to market their products is through online sales system. Based on the research done with Manado women, online shopping has become the latest trend. Different methods were used, but the most common method was booking on the mobile phone rather than on a personal computer. Various social media often become tools for marketing products to women in particular. 42% of women in the sample used online shopping once per month, 32% twice per month and 13% once per week or more. As for the type of goods that are bought, cosmetics and fashion are the most widely purchased 48% of respondents buy cosmetic products online, 48% buy fashion products, 1% buy electronic products, 1% buys household appliances and the rest  culinary.
The bad experiences of the respondents were as follows: 42% experienced a delay in delivery, 22% received a wrong item, 12% received damaged goods, 12% were scammed (they had already paid, but the goods were not delivered), and 12% had not had any bad experiences with online shopping.
The respondents knew about online shopping from various sources: 54% through social media, 23% through TV advertising, 14% through friends, 7% through the Internet (browsing) and 2% through magazines or newspapers. 43% of respondents felt that the prices in online shops were cheaper than in the shops in Manado, and 40% felt that more variety was offered in online shop. Furthermore, 11% said that they find shopping online more practical and 6% find it more cost-efficient.
In the study the frequency of online shopping was one per month for 42% of respondents. This illustrates that the shopping behavior of Manado women is under control, and the tendency of being a “shopaholic” is avoided. Various bad experiences make it necessary to be careful when shopping online. This is why users need to be highly selective, and not infrequently sale of mouth even in social media about their trusted seller helped boost the popularity of the online sites. In addition, for women as the largest user of social media, it is easy to be tempted to shop online because of social media promotion (54%). There are various advantages of shopping online, such as more affordable prices, the convenience of payment, more variety, and saving time and effort.
The results also show that cosmetics and fashion are the major products in online shopping. This is certainly influenced by the demands of work and daily activities of Manado women, or even the existence of certain feast days that make women want to appear different Manado until later meet their needs through online shopping. Recently,  the online shopping not only around the household goods, electronic equipment, but even ordering food and drinks ranging done through the process of online shopping. The online shopping behavior of Manado women has developed and is not inferior to women in other large cities, especially if supported by adequate payment facilities from banks like SMS banking, e-banking, and so forth. However, the quality of goods remains a major concern of consumers.


IV. Conclusion and Suggestions

4.1 Conclusion
Shopping online is now in great demand by all the women and Manado is no exception. Various types of products can be bought online, ranging from fashion and cosmetics to electronics, food and other goods. Online shopping has many advantages, such as lower prices and higher variety, but also several disadvantages, such as damaged and wrong goods or delays in the delivery. It is also susceptible to fraud. Almost all women in Manado have social media accounts that feature online advertising shopping with various interested promo. However, accuracy in shopping need to be considerate, to ensure that the online store completely reliable to avoid the various losses.

4.2 Suggestions
The rise of online shopping system creates a shift in the shopping behavior of Manado women. Various attractive deals from online shops exist for consumers. However, some important things need attention in order to avoid losses when shopping online. Accuracy will be items to be purchased, as well as the need to repeatedly check for goods that will buy, must be made by the consumer. While the existence of a variety of attractive promotions in stores online should be examined properly by consumers, especially women as majority of the consumers, in order to avoid their behavior or shopaholic who then makes the arrears due to the booming shopping transactions. The important think regarding online shopping must be recommended , what is the priority needed, ranging from the needs of primary, secondary, tertiary up so that consumers from excessive shopping behavior.
Moreover, in the process of shopping transactions the consumers also need to be careful. The consumer must maintain the confidentiality of personal data, especially banking data, when using a credit card. The most secure payment method is to make a bank transfer payment if the online store can be trusted.


V. Selected References

Aufa, J. (2014). 5 Manfaat Belanja Online . Jakarta: Liputan6.com
Data Statistik Kota Manado Tahun 2013.
Engel, J. F., Blackwell, R. D & Miniard, P. W. (1994). Perilaku Konsumen.
Jakarta : Binarupa Aksara.

Lina & Rosyid, H., F. (1997). Perilaku Konsumtif Berdasarkan Locus of Control Psikologi.
Jurnal Psikologika, 4,5-13.

Loekamto, A. (2012). Implementasi Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) Dalam Online 
Shopping. Kajian Ilmiah Mahasiswa Manajemen Vol 1 No.3.

Ramadhan, A. (2005). Seri Pelajaran Komputer Internet dan Aplikasinya. Jakarta: Elex Media Komputindo.

www. kaffah.biz/dir/art “Perbedaan Perilaku Belanja Antara Pria dan Wanita” (diakses pada
tanggal 1 Agustus 2016, pukul 15.00 WITA).

www.startupbisnis.com “Hal-hal Menarik dari Riset Perilaku e-commerce Indonesia oleh IDEA”
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The Effect of the Motivation on Financial Officers’ Performance of Ministry of National Education Office in Jakarta

Faisal Marzuki

Abstract
 
The objective of this research is to study the effect of controlling, organizational culture and work motivation on financial officers’ performance of Ministry of National Education Office in Jakarta. This research was conducted in Jakarta. The data had been analyzed using path analysis. The populations of this research were 61 principals are there in six city/districts. The questioner of this research had been testing on the 118 persons. Therefore, by stratified random sampling the samples of this research were 51 financial officers which were selected stratification and randomly. The research findings are as follows: (1) there was a positive direct effect of controlling on financial officers’ work motivation, (2) there was a positive direct effect of organizational culture on financial officers’ work motivation, (3) there was a positive direct effect of organizational culture on financial officers’ performance, (4) there was a positive direct effect of controlling on financial officers’ performance, and (5) there was a positive direct effect of work motivation on financial officers’ performance.
Keywords: motivation, and financial officers’ performance
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Misunderstandings in the Indonesian Language in Printed and Electronic Media

I Dewa Ketut Gianyar

Abstract
 
This study focuses on the nature of misunderstandings of Indonesian language users. The purpose of the study is to describe the nature and the types of misunderstandings that occur in print and electronic media. The study uses qualitative methods procedures to gain descriptive data in written and spoken language. In addition, the methods are implemented and elaborated in accordance with the nature of the instrument or tool. Data was collected using the techniques: (1) observation, (2) conversation (interview), (3) survey, and (4) documentation. The data collected can be both primary data and secondary data. Primary data was obtained from first-hand sources with interviews and observations of direct broadcast television. Meanwhile, secondary data was obtained from indirect sources with documentation data in newspapers, magazines, the internet as social media and official archives. Sampling was done purposively by classifying data based on the fields of phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and spelling. The results show that the number of misconceptions is caused by the customs in use. The implications of the study are to point out a reference standard for the Indonesian language. 
Keywords: misuse phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and spelling
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The Effect of Verbal Communication on Health Attitude of the Minahasan Community in North Sulawesi, Indonesia

Prof. Dr. Margaretha Liwoso

Abstract
 
The role of both verbal and nonverbal language is crucial in all aspects of the Minahasan community concerning their expectation of health. This study uses a qualitative method in term of evaluation, and data is collected in the form of language discourse. The datum is gathered in spoken and written form through interviews with the participants, observations, documents and from the media. The hopes of expectations refer to both the negative or positive outcomes. The results show that the attitude of the Minahasan community tends to rely on the testimonies of others about how they got treatment from the traditional healers, which is spread orally very fast. In fact, the patients who are influenced by the testimonies from other community will be looked for the healer service. The implication of the research is the need of the publishing information about the real medical treatment through media in order to make them realize about their mistake. The results show that the attitude of the Minahasan community tends to rely on the testimonies of others about how they got treatment from the traditional healers, which is spread orally very fast. In fact, the patients who are influenced by the testimonies from other community will be looked for the healer service. The implication of the research is the need of the publishing information about the real medical treatment through media in order to make them realize about their mistake. The result of this research shows that they used the alternative treatment without considering the side-effect of this method. Besides, the government needs to provide more funding or facilities to the poor people and they can obtain the appropriate medical treatment.
Keywords: verbal and nonverbal communication, health attitude, appropriate information, government support
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