Journal Publishing Volume XI

VOLUME XI/010/10/2016
Implicative in Manadonese Conversational Jokes

Stevanus Ngenget

Jokes are used extensively in Manadonese society. Most of the time they appear literally in conversations. However, there are also occasions when jokes are produced through implicative. A study at De La Salle University Manado found that among colleagues implicative for the purpose of joking appears in the form of violations of three Gricean maxims, namely the maxim of quantity, the maxim of quality and the maxim of relationship. The last Gricean maxim, the maxim of manner, was not observable. Jokes produced through implicative are intended to tease, to cope with a contextual problem, and to control the interlocutor.
Keywords: implicative, jokes, cooperative principles, gricean maxims.
Bantik Language as a Parent to Several Languages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia

Joutje A. Koapaha

Lexically there are many alphabetics in the Bantik language compared to its cognate language Mongondow. This study aims to identify and determine the position of the parent language between the two languages with regard to regularity and dominant patterns of the phonemic corespondences and morphemic transformations cross-linguistic. In addition, the goal of this study is to reconfirm the position of Bantik as a parent language based on linguistic and non-linguistic arguments. Previous studies on the Bantik lamguage in comparison with its cognates Sangir and Talaud which applied the construction theory and used a comparative method determined a phonemic cross-linguistic modification or transformation. Using a symmetrical and asymmetrical analysis between paired word formations, this study found four different regular and dominat phonemic changes or transformations: (1) a regular change of the vowels /a/, /e/, and /i/ in Bantik into the vowel /o/ in Mongondow; (2) a regular and dominant transformation of the consonant /s/ in Bantik into the consonant /t/ in Mongondow; (3) a regular and dominant transformation of the consonant /d/ in Bantik into the consonants /y/ and /r/ in Mongondow; and (4) a regular and dominant phonemic change or tranformation of the consonant /h/ in Bantik into the consonants /g/ and /y/ in Mongondow.
Based on the description of non-linguistic factors such as richness, diversity and tophonimy, the ownership of the only indigenous Bantik land in North Sulawesi, and current historical comparison studies among speakers of cognate languages, the position of Bantik as a parent language in North Sulawesi is solidified.

Keywords: parent language, phonemic transformation, cross-cognate languages, construction theory, word analysis, comparative method.
A Study on Apologies in Bahasa Indonesia

Prof. Agus Gerrad Senduk

The purpose of this study is to discuss the use of apologies in Bahasa Indonesia by finding forms of pragmatic expressions indicating polite apologies in Bahasa Indonesia and analyzing how polite apologies distribute on politeness strategy. The sample consisted of speakers of Bahasa Indonesia from Manado in North Sulawesi Province Data was collected through contacting, participant observation and interviews, and subsequently analyzed descriptively according to the activities of unitization, categorization, explanation, and interpretation. The results showed that apologies in Bahasa Indonesia are distributed along the following strategies: apology as a specific statement of what was done; apology based on taking responsibility; apology based on acknowledgment of pain or embarrassment; apology as acknowledgment of the wrongdoing; apology as regret; apology as indication of future intentions; and apology with request. It is suggested that a more detailed study should be conducted on apologies in Bahasa Indonesia because this study does not go deeply into a detailed discussion on the topic.
Keywords: apology, expression, and bahasa indonesia.
Understanding Marginalized People Rights in a Nation State:
Towards a Genuine Recognition of Adat Communities over Access to Natural Environment Justice in Multicultural Country of Indonesia

I Nyoman Nurjaya

The era following the 1972 Stockholm Declaration and subsequently the 1992 Rio de Janeiro Declaration, brought about a great amount of concern of the international community, in developed as well as under-developed countries, for human environment and natural resources preservation, management and protection. It includes the equitable allocation and distribution of natural resources as well as fair participation in environmental decision-making, respect and recognition of rights of the people and particularly indigenous communities. This is the so called access to justice for all that refers to a genuine access by people and communities to obtain just and fair democratic mechanism in respect and recognition of their basic legal rights in controlling and utilizing natural environment and resources for survival. Furthermore, access to justice means strengthening the fair involvement of the people with respect to preserving and managing the natural environment for sustainable development as to fulfill human rights as reflected in the State’s Constitution and legislation. In the context of Indonesia, the above mentioned rights of the people and communities to ecological justice are clearly articulated in the 1945 Constitution. The paper attempts to convey a critical analysis as to whether the 1945 Constitution provides a genuine or pseudo respect and recognition in relation to access to ecological justice of the people and particularly for marginalized people, namely indigenous adat people and communities (masyarakat hukum adat) in the multicultural Nation State of Indonesia.
Keywords: marginalization, people rights, multicultural country, natural environment.
The Unity of Cohesion on the Introduction Thesis in English at the Khairun University Ternate

Ali Ajam

Discourse is used as a combination of sentences or sentence fragments that are the result of communication between participants, such as speakers and listeners or writers and readers (Wang and Guo, 2014: 460). Murcia and Olshtain (2000: 125) state that cohesion and coherence are two important features in a good text that must be considered in writing text. Further, Eriyanto (2001) states that cohesion is the harmony of the relationships of the elements in discourse, whereas coherence is a discourse that lead to a certain ideas can be understood by the audience. Furthermore, Beaugrande and Dressler (1981: 3) describe that cohesion with respect to the various ways in which produce the components of the text (surface text) - like actual words heard or viewed are interconnected in a sequence. The various components are based on the grammatical forms and conventions. Hallday and Hasan (1976) explain that the relationship of cohesion is the semantic relationship embodied through the lexicogrammatical system, namely grammar and word choice. The cohesion expressed through grammar is called grammatical cohesion, while cohesion through word selection is called lexical cohesion.
Keywords: discourse, lexical cohesion, grammatical cohesion.
On Religious Pluralism in Indonesia Questioning Christian and Muslim Tolerance and Legal Pluralism

Prof. Dr. Margaretha Liwoso Carle

This research focuses on how Indonesian intellectuals of Christian and Muslim endeavor respond to the question of interfaith tolerance, and by thus it takes a glance at the problem of religious and legal pluralism.
To understand the specific situation in Indonesia as far as Islam and Christianity are concerned, one needs to explore the main character on the matter in Indonesia and in terms of the certain cases. One needs to ask whether the Christian or Muslim followers tend to differ significantly, which makes a mutual understanding of traditional as well as modern ideas. Or do we find substantial indications of a far-reaching inter-religious open-mindedness both from the Muslim and the Christian side? So far, the intellectuals with a liberal way of thinking supported to the idea of religious pluralism and tolerance among the Indonesians which they mean to be developed further. How they stand at attention in a society which on the other hand, tends to withstand more or less regular interaction between different religious communities which is caused by suspicion of mixing-up with unwanted acculturation or adaptation, all the more with assimilation or integration.
During the late colonial times Indonesian Christians and Muslims likewise suffered from colonial domination and pressure. They thus felt sharing the same fate and should help each other in order to gain freedom and independence together. It is remarkable that one of the Indonesian myths of state-building which is called ‘Oath of the Youth’ from 28th of October 1928 (Sumpah Pemuda), jointly proposed “one home country, one nation, one language” as a goal in the life of an independent nation to come. That still often quoted ideal of a bridgeable national oneness above the manifold diversity and differences, met with a noteworthy response during the process of gaining independence and thereafter in the new state. Its response just may be seen from Sukarno’s then popular slogan Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (‘Unity in Diversity’) which as part of the state ideological inventory aimed at preserving the idea of balanced social harmony in connection with the imposing structure of the state ideology called Pancasila (‘Five Principles’). On the other side, it is important to the Church that this encounter with Muslims should take place in an atmosphere that focuses on what the two religions and their relationships with God can do to enrich and enhance life in the society. As assumption is a needed effort from both sides Muslim and Christian to clarify and to create good neighborly relations between them to solve the interfaith problems in Indonesia.

Keywords: interfaith problem, muslim and christian, religions tolerance, indonesian intellectuals, legal pluralism.


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