Journal Publishing Volume XII

VOLUME XII/010/10/2017
The Focus Formation of Tolour Language

Sjane F. Walangarei

          This study aims at analyzing focus formation and its meaning in the Tolour language (TL). Focus in the Tolour language refers to a speakers’ attention to the syntactic-semantic relationship between predicate and noun. This grammatical process depends on a sentence element, and the predicate. The Predicate in the Tolour language is filled by a verb and a word forming process such as affixation or reduplication. To analyze the data, the study describes verb and sentence types so that the substitution process of sentence element locations can be identified. The results show that the Tolour language has five different foci, namely agent, target, instrument, location, and time focus. All focuses can be formed by predicate grammaticalization or with markers embedded in the predicate. Any syntactic functions like noun and adverb can change their positions as a result of the morphemic process in the Tolour language predicate. Focus markers like affixation and the combination of affixation and reduplication are formed by two morphemic processes, namely affixation and reduplication. The focus marker function, which can be found in the formation of the Tolour language focus, can substitute for the sentence elements like noun and adverb. In summary, the focus formation in the Tolour language does not only occur through the grammatical relationship between predicate and noun, but also through the relationship between predicate and adverb. The focus formation of the Tolour language is different from other languages because the focus formation of the Tolour language is completely grammatical.
Keywords: focus system, focus formation, Tolour language, sentence substitution.
Constitutional and Legal Recognition over Traditonal Adat Community within the Multicultural Country of Indonesia: Is it a Genuine or Pseudo Recognition?

I Nyoman Nurjaya

          Indonesia is well known as a multicultural country in Southeast Asia in term of its ethnic, religion, racial and social stratification. It is Unity in Diversity, which is reflected in the official motto of the State to describe the social and cultural diversity of Indonesia. The diversity refers to a cultural configuration which reflects the National identity of Indonesia, containing cultural capital and cultural power. However, cultural diversity yields conflict that could potentially generate social disintegration due to inter-ethnic and inter-religious disputes that may result in the disintegration of Indonesia as a Nation State. In the eyes of legal anthropologists, sources of conflicts are based on discriminatory policies expressed within State’s law and legislations in line to the recognition and protection the existence of local communities, namely traditional adat communities spread out in the region. Thus, State laws enacted and enforced by the Government tend to dominate and marginalize as well as ignore the rights of the local communities particularly over access and control natural resources they depend on based on customary adat law in the region. The paper attempts to offer an answer to the fundamental question whether the 1945 Constitution recognizes and protects the traditional communities and their customary adat law by employing a legal anthropological approach with the purpose of obtaining a better understanding regarding the development of State law in a multicultural Nation toward a more just and equitable State law of Indonesia.
Keywords: constitutional, legal recognition, traditional custom, and multicultural country.
A Study on Verbal Inflections in Toulour Language

Agus Gerrad Senduk

          The study aims at describing the verbal inflections in Toulour local language: how verbs undergo internal variations or changes to indicate their relations with other words and changes in meaning. This is a qualitative research where the samples are the informants who can speak Toulour local language in Tataaran I and Koya villages. They use the language in their daily activities. Data have been collected by recording native speakers’ informal conversation and interviewing them to find out the verbal inflections in Toulour language. In using the interviewing technique, the writer asked the informants by using Indonesian language. The result shows that the verbal (infixational) inflections used in Toulour language are only –im-, -um-, and –in-. As like in Bahasa Indonesia we recognize three kinds of verbal (infixational) inflections, the same thing holds for infixes in Toulour language. In Bahasa Indonesia we recognize three kinds of infixational inflections (-el-, -em-, -er-), so do they in Toulour language (-im-, -um-. and –in-). The use of infixational inflections in Toulour sentences shows the tense and the voice of its sentences. The verbal (infixational) inflections -um-, -im-, and -in- in Toulour language are truly infixes in their form, but semantically they indicate the modality of tenses.
Keywords: inflection, verbal inflection, Toulour language.
Speech Acts of Politicians in The Election Campaign of Tomohon’s Mayor and Deputy Mayor in 2015

Yopie A. T. Pangemanan

          The spoken language becomes the object of language study from various points of view. It is based on pragmatics field. The context intended is social and cultural environment in which the language used. Speech in a particular context is a phenomenon that always follows the process of verbal communication in all professions background at graded level. Broad boundaries of the profession of people communicating will determine the extent of implications. One of the speaker’s professions intended is politician. This research discusses the speech acts of politicians in the election campaign of Mayor and Deputy Mayor in Tomohon City, North Sulawesi Province. One of the activities to influence the society is the election campaign. The politicians’ utterance delivered in campaign activities aimed at conveying ideas and promises to affect the hearers. As the speech goes on, at the same time the speaker is doing something. It is as Austin (1962) stated that by saying something we do something. Characteristic of the problem analyzed in this study is a complex and dynamic social reality. Therefore, the approach used is qualitative. Broadly speaking, the research process consists of three stages, namely 1) data provision, 2) data analysis, and 3) data analysis presentation. While data analysis processing is based on the techniques proposed by Miles and Huberman (1992). These techniques include: (a) data reduction, (b) data presentation (c) conclusion. These steps are an interconnected cycle and performed simultaneously during and after data collection. In terms of meaning and function, most of the politicians' speeches are type of ‘perlocutionary act’ which generally affect the speech partners to fulfill the speaker's intention. This speech act becomes the key of candidate pair to win. One unique thing based on the research result in speech acts occurred is no type of locutionary act that is really meaningful as this kind of speech act. The utterance produced usually has already contained the power of ‘illocutionary’ and ‘perlocutionary’.
Keywords: speech acts, politicians utterance, and election campaign.
Is Paninian Grammar a Dependency Grammar? Why or Why not?

Ahdi Hassan

          The literature on dependency grammar (DG) often cites Paninian grammar as dependency-based (as opposed to constituency-based), although the extent to which Paninian grammar is in fact dependency-based has not been yet worked out and documented in a clear way. If Panini's works are indeed dependency-based as claimed, then that can indeed be construed as strongly supporting the DG approach to natural language syntax, precisely because Panini's works are the first known attempts (world wide) at a grammar of natural language. This manuscript explores the extent to which Paninian grammar can indeed be viewed as a DG. Paninian grammar is investigated with respect to three core aspects of dependency-based approaches to syntax: 1) the absence of the initial binary division of the clause into a subject and a predicate, this division being at the core of most phrase structure grammars and thus qualifying as the anti-thesis of Tesniere's verb centrality; 2) the extent to which the syntactic functions (also known as the grammatical relations) are primitive in the theory, as opposed to being derived from the configuration, and 3) the extent to which words are acknowledged and viewed as being directly or indirectly dependent on each other, for instance in terms of heads and dependents. The exploration of these three areas reveals that Paninian grammar does indeed have much more in common with dependency-based syntax than with constituency-based syntax. The DG claims to the Paninian tradition are warranted.
Keywords: Paninian grammar, dependency grammar, constituency grammar, verb, Sanskrit language.
Effects of Texting on Students’ Spelling in Academic Writing

Zubair Ahmed Soomro

Umaima Kamran

          Emergence of communication through modern modes such as texting has greatly influenced the written communication among students. This impact of texting can also be traced from their academic writings. The present research is investigating those effects of texting on students’ spelling in academic writing. It focuses on the factors that are affecting the academic performance, regarding the possible influence of textisms in language on student’s spellings. Being quantitative research in nature on its way to uncover the questions under investigation, the tool of investigation was based on two sources of data analysis; (i) structured close and open-ended questionnaires and (ii) written checked assignments taken as primary data from twenty-three Bachelor Studies (BS) departments of 1st and 2nd semester students from Pakistan’s most renowned institution, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad.
          This research reveals that texting language in the formal writing significantly influences the students’ textisms language. The present study also reveals that the BS students are using text language in their daily life in a good and bad manner. The use of text language in communication is good because text has short space of 160 characters, so they need to precise it and deliver the long message in short words. In contrast when students use these textisms terms in their academia so it creates a major problem for students to memorize the correct spelling in formal writing.

Keywords: textism, Academic writing, students’ spelling, short message service (sms) language, communication.

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