Journal Publishing Volume XIII


VOLUME XIII/010/04/2018
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Challenges and Issues of Language Use Between Monolingual and Multilingual Societies

Halimah Mohammad Mahmoudi
and
Ahdi Hassan


Abstract
          Language and society are correlated with each other. Existence of a society without language use is possible. Using language between societies confronted with multiple challenges and issues. The basic purpose of the paper is to investigate those challenges and issues which we are facing while using language between monolingual and multilingual societies. Theory of sociolinguistic was used in order to explore those challenges and problems. The research methodology for the paper is based on descriptive qualitative research. The research paper sums up with a call for the development of a framework within which to comprehend those issues and challenges and then to implement proper strategies and policies in order to address with it.
Keywords: language, monolingualism, multilingualism, challenges, and issues
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Strengthening Language and Identity a Case of Torwali Language

Zobair Torwali

Abstract
          Educational planning in the indigenous minority linguistic communities needs a holistic approach wherein it is ensured that the people of the particular speech community or communities can integrate development of their language(s) with the general development of their communities. In Northern Pakistan over two dozen languages are spoken by the various ethno-linguistic communities. In six of these speech communities, work on the development of their languages started in early 2002 which led to incorporating these languages in mother tongue based early childhood multilingual education programs in the respective communities. The work for the revitalization and promotion of the Torwali language and culture began as early as 2002. How far the integrated approach for the promotion of the Torwali language and culture was successful is the question this paper tries to trace. This paper is an attempt to present the work done by the community members in the form of an organizations for the documentation, preservation, promotion and revitalization of the language Torwali and the culture associated with it. It presents an overview of this initiative; the mother tongue based early childhood multilingual education in the Torwali language. Torwali is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the upper beautiful parts of the Swat Valley in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa which is a northwestern frontier province in Pakistan. The paper is an endeavor to look into this program which accompanied mother tongue education planning with a focus on strengthening of identity; and overall social development of the Torwali speech community.
Keywords: Torwali language, language and identity, and education planning
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Morphological Analysis of the Lyrics of Marambak in the Tombulu Dialect

Erenst Mantiri

Abstract
          Marambak lyrics are used by people in Tombulu particularly during the Maengket dance which is performed as a ritual when a new house is constructed. Concretely, this study investigates: 1) The form and meaning of the lyrics of Marambak; 2) The cultural meaning contained in the lyrics; and 3) The mindset of people from Tombulu that is reflected in the lyrics. This study implements the two strategies proposed/developed by Duranti (2001: 26). While the first strategy deals with the linguistic forms and how these forms are relevant to social interactions, and the second strategy is about how particular cultural constructions shape these linguistic forms. The results of this study show that the linguistic forms of the Tombulu language found in the lyrics of Marambak are nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, numbers, and particles. The cultural meaning of the lyrics refers to the Tombulu people’s effort to test the strength of the building. The lyrics reflect the religiosity of the Tombulu people which is practiced based on both traditional and Christian beliefs.
Keywords: morphological process, marambak lyrics, cultural meaning
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The Impact of Drug Abuse on Youth
at Nasirabad Distict Kambar Shahadkot Sindh

Aamir Khan Wahocho
and
Ahdi Hassan

Abstract
          The purpose of this research is to explore the impact of drug abuse on youth. This research work was based on fieldwork in Kambar Shahadkot, Sindh. The aim of this research is to understand the interrelationship between education and drug users. The data was collected by making interviews with structured questions and data analyzed by Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS). The sample for research was taken 120 respondents from Nasirabad at the age of 18-24 who have experience of usage of different types of drugs. The researcher also tried to cover every aspect of the drug abuse in Tehsil. Modern drug users, tobacco use smokeless and other alcohol use were more widespread in universities, high school youths than living in towns. The findings suggest that drug users have an increased risk of suicidal thoughts, violence, repression and social problems.
Keywords: drug use and abuse, education, youth, society, drug addiction
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Language Attitudes of English Language Teachers (ELTs) towards Philippine English

Ericson O. Alieto
and
Richard M. Rillo

Abstract
          This study investigated the language attitudes of English Language Teachers assigned at the secondary level of the basic education. A total of 52 respondents were surveyed using a self-developed Language Attitude Questionnaire (LAQ). The results showed that the respondents exhibit positive attitude towards Philippine English. The study also investigated the differences of language attitudes of the respondents in relation to gender, socio-economic status, years of service and academic achievement. Furthermore, the correlation between the determined dependent variable and independent variables has been explored.
Keywords: language attitude, Philippine English, English language teachers, language attitudes and demographic variables, acceptance of Philippine English
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Toponymy Study of Place Name in Tontemboan Ethnicgroup, Minahasa Regency, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

Vivi Nancy Tumuju

Abstract
          This study aims to analyze the lingual form and phenomenon cases of naming place in the Ranoyapo Sub-district of South Minahasa Regency, in Tontemboan language as object. The method of research used the ethno-linguistics study to examine the language and the history background. The aims of this research to explore the mater of how it formed, where it comes. Besides, what is the reasons of naming place will be the main topics in this research. The purpose of analysis, to
examine the lingual form, the process of word formation, and the differentiation phenomenon of meaning on the phonetic level. Subsequently, of this study needs to describe the determined factors of naming place. The result of this research shows that, the sound variations can distinguish the meaning, when a phoneme is analyzing as minimal pair. In terms of naming place, was found seven nominations, they are water, plants, people, land, objects, stones, and animals.The implication of this research to make known the role of place’s name as identity and heritage of the people around this area who are used Tontemboan language.

Keywords: toponymy, ethnolinguistics, and naming place
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Language Maintenance and Language Shift among Pashto Speakers of Punjab:
A Sociolinguistic Study

Samrina Abdul Majeed

Abstract
          This study explored the phenomenon of language maintenance and shifts among immigrant Pashto speakers in Punjab. This study examined this issue from a sociolinguistic perspective. It has deliberated the different factors affecting on language shift and maintenance like pre-migration experiences such as domestic and educational history, linguistics repertories, the dominance of language use and attitude to the L1 of Pashto speakers. The purpose was to measure the degree of language shift or maintenance among the Pashto speakers. The data was collected by using a questionnaire. The information was acquired relating to the respondents’ language skills, language use in various domains, and sensibility towards Pashto and Punjabi. However, results proved that Pashto speakers were still slightly used in convinced key domains at home with family members. This language shift was the result of chronological, economic, demographic, linguistic and generational distance.
Keywords: language maintenance, language shift, sociolinguistics
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